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BCD Clock

A Binary-Coded Decimal readout: Each column is one digit of the time. The height of the lamps in the column (and their colors) represent the binary weight; add the values of the lighted lamps to determine each decimal digit: Starting from the top row, Blue=8, Green=4, Yellow=2, and Red=1. The white LED in the upper left is a "PM" indicator. The time indicated in the left photo is 8:51 a.m.

(click image for larger version)

The construction is fairly simple; the LEDs are arranged in a 4x4 matrix, driven by a ULN2803 lamp driver (the red LEDs require 40mA peak; too much for the MCU to drive directly). Four of the ULN2803's eight outputs drive the cathodes, and the other four drive 2N2907 transistors, forming level-shifters to drive the anodes. A microchip PIC16F628 keeps the time, based on a 4.9152MHz oscillator module. Power comes from a 12VDC wall transformer, with a 9V backup battery.

This is the first time I've tried using a crystal oscillator module as a clock timebase. They are very easy to use, but tend to lack the precision necessary for a clock. To compensate for this, the time is trimmed in software: Once every hour, a "leap-second" is taken; that one second is lengthened or shortened by a constant value, calculated after running the clock for several weeks. In this version, changing the leap-second constant requires re-compiling the program; I may re-write the code to use the MCU's internal data EEPROM, so trimming doesn't require dissasembling the clock and removing the MCU.

One minor drawback is that a zero is indicated by no lamps lit. This is true BCD, but is hard to read in dim light; is the time 10:01 or 10:10? I've thought about modifying the display subroutine so all lamps glow dimly (by duty-cycle modulation) as place-holders for otherwise unlit digits.

I've also thought about building another version, with two more columns for a seconds display, or possibly combining the BCD readout with the construction technique of my open-frame clock project.

Other clock projects.